John Medina Quotes

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If you wanted to create an education environment that was directly opposed to what the brain was good at doing, you probably would design something like a classroom. If you wanted to create a business environment that was directly opposed to what the brain was good at doing, you probably would design something like a cubicle. And if you wanted to change things, you might have to tear down both and start over.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Children have never been good at listening to their parents, but they have never failed to imitate them.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
We must do a better job of encouraging lifelong curiosity.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
What you do and learn in life physically changes what your brain looks like—it literally rewires it.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
One of the greatest predictors of successful aging, they found, is the presence or absence of a sedentary lifestyle. Put
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Studies show that a person who is interrupted takes 50 percent longer to accomplish a task. Not only that, he or she makes up to 50 percent more errors.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Having a first child is like swallowing an intoxicating drink made of equal parts joy and terror, chased with a bucketful of transitions nobody ever tells you about.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
You may think that grown-ups create children. The reality is that children create grown-ups. They become their own person, and so do you. Children give so much more than they take.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Emotionally charged events are better remembered—for longer, and with more accuracy—than neutral events.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The problem in today’s economy is that people are typically starting a family at the very time they are also supposed to be doing their best work. They are trying to be productive at some of the most stressful times of their lives. What if companies took this unhappy collision of life events seriously? They could offer Gottman’s intervention as a benefit for every newly married, or newly pregnant, employee.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
How People Learn. If you want people to be able to pay attention, don’t start with details. Start with the key ideas and, in a hierarchical fashion, form the details around these larger notions. Meaning before details.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The most common communication mistakes? Relating too much information, with not enough time devoted to connecting the dots.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
(preschoolers demand some form of attention 180 times per hour, behavioral psychologists say),
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
People view their own behaviors as originating from amendable, situational constraints,but they view other people's behavior as originating from inherent, immutable personality traits.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The brain appears to be designed to (1) solve problems (2) related to surviving (3) in an unstable outdoor environment, and (4) to do so in nearly constant motion. I call this the brain’s performance envelope.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The more parents talk to their children, even in the earliest moments of life, the better their kids’ linguistic abilities become
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
To put it bluntly, research shows that we can’t multitask. We are biologically incapable of processing attention-rich inputs simultaneously.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Repeat to remember.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The more you exercise, the more tissues you can feed and the more toxic waste you can remove.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
After years of investigating aging populations, researchers’ answer to the question of how much is not much. If all you do is walk several times a week, your brain will benefit. Even
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Over the long term, however, too much adrenaline produces scarring on the insides of your blood vessels. These scars become magnets for molecules to accumulate, creating lumps called plaques. These can grow large enough to block the blood vessels. If it happens in the blood vessels of your heart, you get a heart attack; in your brain, you get a stroke.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
A lifetime of exercise can result in a sometimes astonishing elevation in cognitive performance, compared with those who are sedentary.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
One of the greatest predictors of performance in school turns out to be the emotional stability of the home.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
When the brain is fully working, it uses more energy per unit of tissue weight than a fully exercising quadricep.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Stress hormones can do some truly nasty things to your brain if boatloads of the stuff are given free access to your central nervous system.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
WE DO NOT SEE with our eyes. We see with our brains.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The mammalian brain's functions include what researchers call the "four F's": fighting, feeding, feeling and ... reproductive behavior.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Kids come into the world before their brains are fully developed. The result? Parenthood.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
There are two ways to beat the cruelty of a harsh environment: You can become stronger or you can become smarter.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
There are four nutrients you will want in your behavioral formula, adjusting them as your baby gets older: breast-feeding, talking to your baby, guided play, and praising effort rather than accomplishment. Brain research tells us there are also several toxins: pushing your child to perform tasks his brain is not developmentally ready to take on; stressing your child to the point of a psychological state termed “learned helplessness”; and, for the under-2 set, television.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
As C.S. Lewis observed in The Silver Chair, one book in the Chronicles of Narnia series: “Crying is all right in its own way while it lasts. But you have to stop sooner or later, and then you still have to decide what to do.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Many families actively discourage the expression of tough emotions like fear and anger. Happiness and tranquility, meanwhile, make it to the top of the list of “approved” emotions. There is no such thing as a bad emotion. There is no such thing as a good emotion. An emotion is either there—or it is not. These parents seem to know that emotions don’t make people weak and they don’t make people strong. They only make people human. The result is a savvy let-the-children-be-who-they-are attitude. -They do not judge emotions. -They acknowledge the reflexive nature of emotions. -They know that behavior is a choice, even though an emotion is not. -They see a crisis as a teachable moment.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Verbalizing has a soothing effect on the nervous systems of children. (Adults, too.)
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Author Elizabeth Stone once said, “Making a decision to have a child—it’s momentous. It is to decide forever to have your heart go walking around outside your body.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
There are great reasons to fear what happens if you don’t create a robust social schedule for the rest of your life or practice mindfulness meditation for the rest of your life.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Aging Well: 10 Principles for Staying Vital, Happy, and Sharp)
Worrying is like a rocking chair. It gives you something to do, but it doesn’t get you anywhere. —Anonymous
John Medina (Brain Rules for Aging Well: 10 Principles for Staying Vital, Happy, and Sharp)
Money increases happiness only when it lifts people out of poverty to about $50,000 a year in income.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
souls should, by definition, also teach about “the metaphysical dimensions
John Medina (Faith, Physics, and Psychology)
We know when our actions fail to match our inner thoughts and feelings, but we often forget that this knowledge is not available to others.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
One of the reasons empathy works so well is because it does not require a solution.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The Mozart Effect comes to mind: the popular idea that listening to classical music makes students better at math.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
But what you do in your child’s first five years of life—not just the first year—profoundly influences how he or she will behave as an adult.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
People don't pay attention to boring things.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Dreaming permits each and every one of us to be quietly and safely insane every night of our lives.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
People usually forget 90 percent of what they learn in a class within 30 days. He further showed that the majority of this forgetting occurs within the first few hours after class.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The more personal an example, the more richly it becomes encoded and the more readily it is remembered.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Public speaking professionals say that you win or lose the battle to hold your audience in the first 30 seconds of a given presentation.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Here’s why this matters: Studies show that a person who is interrupted takes 50 percent longer to accomplish a task. Not only that, he or she makes up to 50 percent more errors.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Though we have been stuffing them into classrooms and cubicles for decades, our brains actually were built to survive in jungles and grasslands. We have not outgrown this.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The brain appears to be designed to (1) solve problems (2) related to surviving (3) in an unstable outdoor environment, and (4) to do so in nearly constant motion.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
If you are trying to get information across to someone, your ability to create a compelling introduction may be the most important single factor in the later success of your mission.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The perfect storm of occupational stress appears to be a combination of two factors: (1) a great deal is expected of you, and (2) you have no control over whether you will perform well.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Regardless of who you are, the brain pays a great deal of attention to several questions: “Can I eat it? Will it eat me?” “Can I mate with it? Will it mate with me?” “Have I seen it before?
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The more handles one creates at the moment of learning, the more likely the information is to be assessed at a later date. The handles we can add revolve around content, timing, and environment.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Music has been a part of the cultural expression of virtually every culture ever studied. It may even extend into prehistoric times. A 35,000-year-old flute made from bird bone has been discovered,
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
If you want people to be able to pay attention, don’t start with details. Start with the key ideas and, in a hierarchical fashion, form the details around these larger notions. Meaning before details.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Teachers find many children emotionally distracted, so upset and preoccupied by the explosive drama of their own family lives that they are unable to concentrate on such mundane matters as multiplication tables.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
mothers suffered from major nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. When the children reached school age, 21 percent scored 130 or more points on a standard IQ test, a level considered gifted. If their mothers had no morning sickness, only 7 percent of kids did that well. The researchers have a theory—still to be proven—about why. Two hormones that stimulate a woman to vomit may also act like neural fertilizer for the developing brain.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
As always, there are exceptions. Adults with training can still learn to distinguish speech sounds in other languages. But in general, the brain appears to have a limited window of opportunity in an astonishingly early time frame. The cognitive door begins swinging shut at 6 months old, and then, unless something pushes against it, the door closes. By 12 months, your baby’s brain has made decisions that affect her the rest of her life.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Imaging studies have shown that exercise increases blood volume in a region of the brain called the dentate gyrus. That’s a big deal. The dentate gyrus is a vital constituent of the hippocampus, a region deeply involved in memory formation.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Just about every mental test possible was tried. No matter how it was measured, the answer was consistently yes: A lifetime of exercise results in a sometimes astonishing elevation in cognitive performance, compared with those who are sedentary.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Is there something to the notion "Let me sleep on it."? Mountains of data says there is. For example, Mendeleyev - the creator of the Periodic Table of Elements - says that he came up with this idea in his sleep. Contemplating the nature of the universe while playing Solitaire one evening, he nodded off. When he awoke, he knew how all the atoms in the universe were organised, and he promptly created his famous table. Interestingly, he organised the atoms in repeating groups of seven, just the way you play Solitaire.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Jill was born into an inner-city home. Her father began having sex with Jill and her sister during their preschool years. Her mother was institutionalized twice because of what used to be termed “nervous breakdowns.” When Jill was 7 years old, her agitated dad called a family meeting in the living room. In front of the whole clan, he put a handgun to his head, said, “You drove me to this,” and then blew his brains out. The mother’s mental condition continued to deteriorate, and she revolved in and out of mental hospitals for years. When Mom was home, she would beat Jill. Beginning in her early teens, Jill was forced to work outside the home to help make ends meet. As Jill got older, we would have expected to see deep psychiatric scars, severe emotional damage, drugs, maybe even a pregnancy or two. Instead, Jill developed into a charming and quite popular young woman at school. She became a talented singer, an honor student, and president of her high-school class. By every measure, she was emotionally well-adjusted and seemingly unscathed by the awful circumstances of her childhood. Her story, published in a leading psychiatric journal, illustrates the unevenness of the human response to stress. Psychiatrists long have observed that some people are more tolerant of stress than others.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Ethan’s parents constantly told him how brainy he was. “You’re so smart! You can do anything, Ethan. We are so proud of you, they would say every time he sailed through a math test. Or a spelling test. Or any test. With the best of intentions, they consistently tethered Ethan’s accomplishment to some innate characteristic of his intellectual prowess. Researchers call this “appealing to fixed mindsets.” The parents had no idea that this form of praise was toxic.   Little Ethan quickly learned that any academic achievement that required no effort was the behavior that defined his gift. When he hit junior high school, he ran into subjects that did require effort. He could no longer sail through, and, for the first time, he started making mistakes. But he did not see these errors as opportunities for improvement. After all, he was smart because he could mysteriously grasp things quickly. And if he could no longer grasp things quickly, what did that imply? That he was no longer smart. Since he didn’t know the ingredients making him successful, he didn’t know what to do when he failed. You don’t have to hit that brick wall very often before you get discouraged, then depressed. Quite simply, Ethan quit trying. His grades collapsed. What happens when you say, ‘You’re so smart’   Research shows that Ethan’s unfortunate story is typical of kids regularly praised for some fixed characteristic. If you praise your child this way, three things are statistically likely to happen:   First, your child will begin to perceive mistakes as failures. Because you told her that success was due to some static ability over which she had no control, she will start to think of failure (such as a bad grade) as a static thing, too—now perceived as a lack of ability. Successes are thought of as gifts rather than the governable product of effort.   Second, perhaps as a reaction to the first, she will become more concerned with looking smart than with actually learning something. (Though Ethan was intelligent, he was more preoccupied with breezing through and appearing smart to the people who mattered to him. He developed little regard for learning.)   Third, she will be less willing to confront the reasons behind any deficiencies, less willing to make an effort. Such kids have a difficult time admitting errors. There is simply too much at stake for failure.       What to say instead: ‘You really worked hard’   What should Ethan’s parents have done? Research shows a simple solution. Rather than praising him for being smart, they should have praised him for working hard. On the successful completion of a test, they should not have said,“I’m so proud of you. You’re so smart. They should have said, “I’m so proud of you. You must have really studied hard”. This appeals to controllable effort rather than to unchangeable talent. It’s called “growth mindset” praise.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Are you a lark, an owl or a hummingbird? Lark, also called early chronotype, is someone who does usually wake up very early. They are most active during morning around 6:00 am. Approximately 10% of people are larks. Owl, also called late chronotype, is someome who does usually wake up very late. They are most active in the evening around 6:00 pm. They usually drink a lot of coffee and accumulate a massive sleep debt as they go through life. Approximately 10% of people are owls. The rest, around 80% of people, are hummingbirds. Some hummingbirds are more larkish, some more owlish and some are in between.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Babies are born with a deep desire to understand the world around them and an incessant curiosity that compels them to aggressively explore it. This need for explanation is so powerfully stitched into their experience that some scientists describe it as a drive, just as hunger and thirst and sex are drives.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Write this across your heart before your child comes into the world: Parenting is a not a race. Kids are not proxies for adult success. Competition can be inspiring, but brands of it can wire your child’s brain in a toxic way. Comparing your kids with your friends’ kids will not get them, or you, where you want to go.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Many couples will fight in front of their children but reconcile in private. This skews a child’s perceptions, even at early ages, for the child always sees the wounding but never the bandaging. Parents who practice bandaging each other after a fight, deliberately and explicitly, allow their children to model both how to fight fair and how to make up.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
One of the reasons veteran parents don’t focus on the hardness of having babies is that “hard” is not the whole story. It’s not even the major part. The time you will actually spend with your kids is breathtakingly short. They will change very quickly. Eventually, your child will find a sleep schedule, turn to you for comfort, and learn from you both what to do and what not to do.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The X chromosome does most of the heavy developmental lifting, while the little Y has been shedding its associated genes at a rate of about five every one million years, committing suicide in slow motion. It’s now down to less than 100 genes. By comparison, the X chromosome carries about 1,500 genes, all necessary participants in embryonic construction projects. These are not showing any signs of decay.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Because we don’t fully understand how our brains work, we do dumb things. We try to talk on our cell phones and drive at the same time, even though it is literally impossible for our brains to multitask when it comes to paying attention. We have created high-stress office environments, even though a stressed brain is significantly less productive than a non-stressed brain. Our schools are designed so that most real learning has to occur at home. Taken together, what do the studies in this book show? Mostly this: If you wanted to create an education environment that was directly opposed to what the brain was good at doing, you probably would design something like a classroom. If you wanted to create a business environment that was directly opposed to what the brain was good at doing, you probably would design something like a cubicle. And if you wanted to change things, you might have to tear down both and start over.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Affect detection. First, a person must detect a change in the emotional disposition of someone else. In the behavioral sciences, “affect” means the external expression of an emotion or mood, generally associated with an idea or an action. Kids who are autistic usually don’t get to this step; as a result, they rarely behave with empathy. • Imaginative transposition. Once a person detects an emotional change, he transposes what he observes onto his own psychological interiors. He “tries on” the perceived feelings as if they were clothes, then observes how he would react given similar circumstances. For those of you in the theater, this is the heart of Stanislavski’s Method Acting. For those of you about to have children, you have just begun to learn how to have a fair fight with them, not to mention your spouse. • Boundary formation. The person who is empathizing realizes at all times that the emotion is happening to the other person, never to the observer. Empathy is powerful, but it is also has boundaries.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
  A former fighter pilot, teaching at an aeronautics university, discovered how this works in the classroom. One of his students had been a star in ground school but was having trouble in the air. During a training flight, she misinterpreted an instrument reading, and he yelled at her, thinking it would force her to concentrate. Instead, she started crying, and though she tried to continue reading the instruments, she couldn’t focus. He landed the plane, lesson over. What was wrong? From the brain’s perspective, nothing was wrong. The student’s mind was focusing on the source of the threat, just as it had been molded to do over the past few million years. The teacher’s anger could not direct the student to the instrument to be learned because the instrument was not the source of danger. The teacher was the source of danger. This is weapons focus, merely replacing “Saturday Night Special” with “ex-fighter pilot.”   The same is true if you are a parenting a child rather than teaching a student. The brain will never outgrow its preoccupation with survival.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
When girl best friends communicate with each other, they lean in, maintain eye contact, and do a lot of talking. They use their sophisticated verbal talents to cement their relationships. Boys never do this. They rarely face each other directly, preferring either parallel or oblique angles. They make little eye contact, their gaze always casting about the room. They do not use verbal information to cement their relationships. Instead, commotion seems to be the central currency of a little boy’s social economy. Doing things physically together
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
More research has since confirmed and extended these simple findings. In addition to satisfying relationships, other behaviors that predict happiness include:        •    a steady dose of altruistic acts        •    making lists of things for which you are grateful, which generates feelings of happiness in the short term        •    cultivating a general “attitude of gratitude,” which generates feelings of happiness in the long term        •    sharing novel experiences with a loved one        •    deploying a ready “forgiveness reflex” when loved ones slight you If
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Couples who regularly practice empathy see stunning results. It is the independent variable that predicts a successful marriage, according to behaviorist John Gottman, who, post hoc criticisms notwithstanding, forecasts divorce probabilities with accuracy rates approaching 90 percent. In Gottman’s studies, if the wife felt she was being heard by her husband—to the point that he accepted her good influence on his behavior—the marriage was essentially divorce-proof. (Interestingly, whether the husband felt heard was not a factor in divorce rates.) If that empathy trafficking was absent, the marriage foundered. Research
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
This rarely happens in a visit to the pediatrician’s office, but it should. The good doctor would ask you about the health of your baby and give your little bundle of joy a routine examination. Then she’d look you in the eyes and ask some truly intrusive questions about your social life. “Do you have many friends?” the pediatrician would inquire. “What social groups do you and your husband belong to? How important are these groups to you? How diverse are they? How much contact time do you and your husband have with them?” The doctor doesn’t ask about these things because your social life is none of her business. The problem is, it is plenty of the infant’s business.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Money doesn’t make the cut. People who make more than $5 million a year are not appreciably happier than those who make $100,000 a year, the Journal of Happiness Studies found. Money increases happiness only when it lifts people out of poverty to about $50,000 a year in income. Past that, wealth and happiness part ways. This suggests something practical and relieving: Help your children get into a profession that can at least make around $50,000 a year. They don’t have to be millionaires to be thrilled with the life you prepare them for. After their basic needs are met, they just need some close friends and relatives. And sometimes even siblings, as the following story attests.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Three researchers at Stanford University noticed the same thing about the undergraduates they were teaching, and they decided to study it. First, they noticed that while all the students seemed to use digital devices incessantly, not all students did. True to stereotype, some kids were zombified, hyperdigital users. But some kids used their devices in a low-key fashion: not all the time, and not with two dozen windows open simultaneously. The researchers called the first category of students Heavy Media Multitaskers. Their less frantic colleagues were called Light Media Multitaskers. If you asked heavy users to concentrate on a problem while simultaneously giving them lots of distractions, the researchers wondered, how good was their ability to maintain focus? The hypothesis: Compared to light users, the heavy users would be faster and more accurate at switching from one task to another, because they were already so used to switching between browser windows and projects and media inputs. The hypothesis was wrong. In every attentional test the researchers threw at these students, the heavy users did consistently worse than the light users. Sometimes dramatically worse. They weren’t as good at filtering out irrelevant information. They couldn’t organize their memories as well. And they did worse on every task-switching experiment. Psychologist Eyal Ophir, an author of the study, said of the heavy users: “They couldn’t help thinking about the task they weren’t doing. The high multitaskers are always drawing from all the information in front of them. They can’t keep things separate in their minds.” This is just the latest illustration of the fact that the brain cannot multitask. Even if you are a Stanford student in the heart of Silicon Valley.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
I remember a story by a flight instructor I knew well. He told me about the best student he ever had, and a powerful lesson he learned about what it meant to teach her. The student excelled in ground school. She aced the simulations, aced her courses. In the skies, she showed natural skill, improvising even in rapidly changing weather conditions. One day in the air, the instructor saw her doing something naïve. He was having a bad day and he yelled at her. He pushed her hands away from the airplane’s equivalent of a steering wheel. He pointed angrily at an instrument. Dumbfounded, the student tried to correct herself, but in the stress of the moment, she made more errors, said she couldn’t think, and then buried her head in her hands and started to cry. The teacher took control of the aircraft and landed it. For a long time, the student would not get back into the same cockpit. The incident hurt not only the teacher’s professional relationship with the student but the student’s ability to learn. It also crushed the instructor. If he had been able to predict how the student would react to his threatening behavior, he never would have acted that way. Relationships matter when attempting to teach human beings—whether you’re a parent, teacher, boss, or peer. Here we are talking about the highly intellectual venture of flying an aircraft. But its success is fully dependent upon feelings.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Emotions get our attention As the television advertisement opens, we see two men talking in a car. They are having a mildly heated discussion about one of them overusing the word “like” in conversation. As the argument continues, we notice out the passenger window another car barreling toward the men. It smashes into them. There are screams, sounds of shattering glass, quick-cut shots showing the men bouncing in the car, twisted metal. The final shot shows the men standing, in disbelief, outside their wrecked Volkswagen Passat. In a twist on a well-known expletive, these words flash on the screen: “Safe Happens.” The spot ends with a picture of another Passat, this one intact and complete with its five-star side-crash safety rating. It is a memorable, even disturbing, 30-second spot. That’s because it’s charged with emotion. Emotionally charged events are better remembered—for longer, and with more accuracy—than neutral events. While this idea may seem intuitively obvious, it’s frustrating to demonstrate scientifically because the research community is still debating exactly what an emotion is. What we can say for sure is that when your brain detects an emotionally charged event, your amygdala (a part of your brain that helps create and maintain emotions) releases the chemical dopamine into your system. Dopamine greatly aids memory and information processing. You can think of it like a Post-it note that reads “Remember this!” Getting one’s brain to put a chemical Post-it note on a given piece of information means that information is going to be more robustly processed. It is what every teacher, parent, and ad executive wants.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Los recuerdos declarativos parecen almacenarse definitivamente en los mismos sistemas corticales involucrados en el procesado inicial del estímulo. En otras palabras, la morada final es también la región que sirvió como punto de partida inicial. La única separación es el tiempo, no el lugar. Estos datos tienen mucho que decir no sólo sobre el almacenaje, sino también sobre el recuerdo. La recuperación, diez años más tarde, de una huella de memoria totalmente madura puede constituir simplemente un intento de reconstruir los momentos iniciales del aprendizaje, cuando el recuerdo sólo tenía unos milisegundos de edad.
John Medina Exprime tus neuronas.
Los recuerdos declarativos parecen almacenarse definitivamente en los mismos sistemas corticales involucrados en el procesado inicial del estímulo. En otras palabras, la morada final es también la región que sirvió como punto de partida inicial. La única separación es el tiempo, no el lugar. Estos datos tienen mucho que decir no sólo sobre el almacenaje, sino también sobre el recuerdo. La recuperación, diez años más tarde, de una huella de memoria totalmente madura puede constituir simplemente un intento de reconstruir los momentos iniciales del aprendizaje, cuando el recuerdo sólo tenía unos milisegundos de edad.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Every time I lectured to a group of parents-to-be about baby brain development,
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
people don’t pay attention to boring things
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
One study hints that it could, though more work needs to be done. Kids with normal hearing took an American Sign Language class for nine months, in the first grade, then were administered a series of cognitive tests. Their attentional focus, spatial abilities, memory, and visual discrimination scores improved dramatically—by as much as 50 percent—compared with controls who had no formal instruction.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
What to say instead: “You really worked hard” What should Ethan’s parents have done? Research reveals a simple solution. Rather than praising him for being smart, they should have praised him for working hard. On the successful completion of a test, they should not have said, “I’m so proud of you. You’re such a bright kid.” That appeals to a fixed, uncontrollable intellectual trait. It’s called “fixed mindset” praise. His parents should have said, “I’m so proud of you. You must have studied a lot.” This appeals to controllable effort. It’s called “growth mindset” praise.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Americans 2 years of age and older now spend an average of four hours and 49 minutes per day in front of the TV—20 percent more than 10 years ago. And we are getting this exposure at younger and younger ages, made all the more complex because of the wide variety of digital screen time now available. In 2003, 73 percent of kids under 6 watched television every day. And children younger than 2 got two hours and five minutes of “screen time” with TVs and computers per day.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
•   Information
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Dr. Mark A. Gabriel, Ph.D., a former professor of Islamic history at Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt has described the contents of the Quran:          “In Medina, Muhammad became a military leader and invader, so   the revelations in Medina talk about military power and invasion in the name of Islam (Jihad). Sixty percent of the Quranic verses talk about Jihad, which stands to reason because Muhammad received most of the Quran after he left Mecca. Jihad became the basic power and driving force of Islam”. (Islam and Terrorism, Charisma House, 2002).
John Price (The End of America: The Role of Islam in the End Times and Biblical Warnings to Flee America)
Most of its functions involve what some researchers call the “four Fs”: fighting, feeding, fleeing, and … reproductive behavior.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
is to teach her impulse control in her early
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
reasoning is a uniquely human talent. It may have arisen from our need to understand one another’s intentions and motivations. This allowed us to coordinate within a group, which is how we took over the Earth.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Because we don’t fully understand how our brains work, we do dumb things. We try to talk on our cell phones and drive at the same time, even though it is literally impossible for our brains to multitask when it comes to paying attention.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
neuroscientist John Medina said, “Hear a piece of information and three days later you’ll remember 10% of it. Add a picture and you’ll remember 65%.
Kevin Horsley (Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster, Remember More and be More Productive (Mental Mastery Book 1))
Your meta-emotion philosophy turns out to be very important to your children’s future. It predicts how you will react to their emotional lives, which in turn predicts how (or if) they learn to regulate their own emotions. Because these skills are directly related to a child’s social competency, how you feel about feelings can profoundly influence your child’s future happiness. You have to be comfortable with your emotions in order to make your kids comfortable with theirs.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Your lifetime risk for general dementia is literally cut in half if you participate in physical activity. Aerobic exercise seems to be the key. With Alzheimer’s, the effect is even greater: Such exercise reduces your odds of getting the disease by more than 60 percent. How much exercise? Once again, a little goes a long way. The researchers showed you have to participate in some form of exercise just twice a week to get the benefit. Bump it up to a 20-minute walk each day, and you can cut your risk of having a stroke—one of the leading causes of mental disability in the elderly—by 57 percent.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Assigning work projects based on an employee’s strengths may be critical to your group’s productivity. You may discover you had a Michael Jordan on your team but couldn’t see it because you were only asking him to play baseball.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
When Tyler found out about chocolate-chip cookies, his sole goal in life became to stuff as many as he could into his mouth.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The more attention the brain pays to a given stimulus, the more elaborately the information will be encoded—and retained.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Emotionally arousing events tend to be better remembered than neutral events. While
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
We now know that infants do not gain a more sophisticated vocabulary until their fine-motor finger control improves.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
There are four nutrients you will want in your behavioral formula, adjusting them as your baby gets older: breast-feeding, talking to your baby, guided play, and praising effort rather than accomplishment.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
When she puts a piece of information in front of a student, that kid’s brain doesn’t just absorb it in some easily understandable fashion. As John Medina writes, the process is more “like a blender left running with the lid off. The information is literally sliced into discrete pieces as it enters the brain and splattered all over the insides of our mind.
David Brooks (The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources Of Love, Character, And Achievement)
Having a first child is like swallowing an intoxicating drink made of equal parts joy and terror, chased with a bucketful of transitions nobody ever tells you about. I know firsthand:
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
TV also poisons attention spans and the ability to focus, a classic hallmark of executive function. For each additional hour of TV watched by a child under the age of 3, the likelihood of an attentional problem by age 7 increased by about 10 percent. So a preschooler who watches three hours of TV per day is 30 percent more likely to have attentional problems than a child who watches no TV.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Why is it important to forget? Forgetting plays a vital role in our ability to function for a deceptively simple reason. Forgetting allows us to prioritise. Anything irrelevant to our survival will take up wasteful cognitive space if we assign it the same priority as events critical to our survival.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The only time I ever felt qualified to be a parent was before I had kids.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The effect is so powerful that what you eat during the last stages of pregnancy can influence the food preferences of your baby.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
People view their own behaviors as originating from situations beyond their control, but they view other people’s behaviors as originating from inherent personality traits.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
taurine,
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Stress hormones seem to have a particular liking for cells in the hippocampus, which is a problem because the hippocampus is deeply involved in many aspects of human learning.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Stress hormones can make cells in the hippocampus more vulnerable to other stresses. Stress hormones can disconnect neural networks, the webbing of brain cells that store your most precious memories. For example, a bodyguard was in the car with Princess Diana on the night of her death. To this day, he cannot remember the events several hours before or after the car crash. Amnesia is a typical response to catastrophic stress. Its lighter cousin, forgetfulness, is quite common when the stress is less severe but more pervasive.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
I was born with the horse and buggy. I die with the space shuttle. What kind of thing is that?” His eyes twinkled. “I live the good life!
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
prolific inventor,
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Parents who consistently apply attention—especially in these early years—statistically raise the happiest kids.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
A healthy night’s sleep can indeed boost learning significantly. Sleep scientists debate how we should define learning, and what exactly is improvement. But there are many examples of the phenomenon. One study stands out in particular. Students were given a series of math problems and prepped with a method to solve them. The students weren’t told there was also an easier “shortcut” way to solve the problems, potentially discoverable while doing the exercise. The question was: Is there any way to jump-start, even speed up, the insight into the shortcut? The answer was yes, if you allow them to sleep on it. If you let 12 hours pass after the initial training and ask the students to do more problems, about 20 percent will have discovered the shortcut. But, if in that 12 hours you also allow eight or so hours of regular sleep, that figure triples to about 60 percent. No matter how many times the experiment is run, the sleep group consistently outperforms the non-sleep group about three to one. Sleep
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Just how do you grow a smart baby? We’re thinking in terms of soil, so it makes sense to formulate a fertilizer. What you put in is as important as what you leave out. There are four nutrients you will want in your behavioral formula, adjusting them as your baby gets older: breast-feeding, talking to your baby, guided play, and praising effort rather than accomplishment. Brain research tells us there are also several toxins: pushing your child to perform tasks his brain is not developmentally ready to take on; stressing your child to the point of a psychological state termed “learned helplessness”; and, for the under-2 set, television.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
happy a child ultimately becomes. This chapter is all about why some kids, like Baby 19, are so unhappy—and other kids are not. (Indeed, most kids are just the opposite. Baby 19 is so named because babies 1 through 18 in Kagan’s study were comparatively pretty jolly.) We will discuss the biological basis of happy children,
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
One of the hardest behaviors to quench in anyone is a habit that is only occasionally rewarded. Want to keep a gambler at a slot machine longer? Make sure the payout schedule is random. Studies show that people who experience random rewards in response to a behavior cling to that behavior much more solidly than those who don’t. This
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The brain acts like a muscle: The more activity you do, the larger and more complex it can become. Whether that equates to more intelligence is another issue, but one fact is indisputable; What you do in life physically changes what your brain looks like. You can wire and rewire your brain with the simple choice of which musical instrument---or professional sport---you play
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Emotions get our attention.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The brain pays more attention to the gist than to the peripheral details of an emotionally charged experience...present information in a logically organized, hierarchical structure.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The brain cannot multitask...The brain naturally focuses on concepts sequentially, one at a time...This attentional ability is, to put it bluntly, not capable of multitasking.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
If my husband tells me one more time that he needs to rest because he “worked all day,” I will throw all of his clothes on the front lawn, kick his car into neutral and watch it roll away and I’ll sell all of his precious sports stuff on eBay for a dollar. And then I’ll kill him. He seriously doesn’t get it! Yes, he worked all day, but he worked with English speaking, potty trained, fully capable adults. He didn’t have to change their diapers, give them naps and clean their lunch from the wall. He didn’t have to count to 10 to calm himself, he didn’t have to watch Barney 303,243,243 times, and he didn’t have to pop his boob out 6 times to feed a hungry baby and I KNOW he didn’t have peanut butter and jelly crust for lunch. He DID get TWO 15-minute breaks to “stroll,” an hour break to hit the gym, and a 1 hour train ride home to read or nap. So maybe I don’t get a paycheck, maybe I stay in my sweatpants most of the day, maybe I only shower every 2 or 3 days, maybe I get to “play” with our kids all day … I still work a hell of a lot harder in one hour than he does all day. So take your paycheck, stick it in the bank and let me go get a freakin’ pedicure once a month without hearing you say “Maybe if you got a job … and had your own money.” Ouch.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The brain cannot multitask
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Try creating an interruption-free zone during the day—turn off your e-mail, phone, IM program, or BlackBerry—and see whether you get more done.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Infants track these characteristics of language at an astonishingly early age. At birth, your baby can distinguish between the sounds of every language that has ever been invented. Professor Patricia Kuhl, co-director of the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, discovered this phenomenon. She calls kids at this age “citizens of the world.” Chomsky puts it this way: We are not born with the capacity to speak a specific language. We are born with the capacity to speak any language.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
As neuroscientist John Medina said, “Hear a piece of information and three days later you’ll remember 10% of it. Add a picture and you’ll remember 65%.
Kevin Horsley (Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster, Remember More and be More Productive (Mental Mastery Book 1))
a person who is interrupted takes 50 percent longer to accomplish a task and makes up to 50 percent more errors.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Google takes to heart the power of exploration. For 20 percent of their time, employees may go where their mind asks them to go. The proof is in the bottom line: Fully 50 percent of new products, including Gmail and Google News, came from “20 percent time.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Other labs have extended his work, finding that women recall more emotional autobiographical events, more rapidly and with greater intensity, than men do. Women consistently report more vivid memories for emotionally important events such as a recent argument, a first date, or a vacation.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Lark, also called early chronotype, is someone who does usually wake up very early. They are most active during morning around 6:00 am. Approximately 10% of people are larks. Owl, also called late chronotype, is someome who does usually wake up very late. They are most active in the evening around 6:00 pm. They usually drink a lot of coffee and accumulate a massive sleep debt as they go through life. Approximately 10% of people are owls. The rest, around 80% of people, are hummingbirds. Some hummingbirds are more larkish, some more owlish and some are in between.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
As neuroscientist John Medina says, “Hear a piece of information and three days later you’ll remember 10% of it. Add a picture and you’ll remember 65%.
Kevin Horsley (Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster, Remember More and be More Productive (Mental Mastery Book 1))
At birth, your baby can distinguish between the sounds of every language that has ever been invented. Professor Patricia Kuhl, co-director of the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, discovered this phenomenon. She calls kids at this age “citizens of the world”. Chomsky puts it this way: We are not born with the capacity to speak a specific language. We are born with the capacity to speak any language. Unfortunately, things don’t stay that way. By their first birthday, Kuhl found, babies can no longer distinguish between the sounds of every language on the planet. They can distinguish only between those to which they have been exposed in the past six months. A Japanese baby not exposed to “rake” and “lake” during her second six months of life cannot distinguish between those two sounds by the time she is 1 year old.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Truth: The greatest pediatric brain-boosting technology in the world is probably a plain cardboard box, a fresh box of crayons, and two hours. The worst is probably your new flat-screen TV. (See “Hurray for play!” on page 129.)
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Studies suggest that fussy babies are later more likely to comply with your wishes, be better socialized, and get better grades.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
think that grown-ups create children. The reality is that children create grown-ups. They become their own person, and so do you. Children give so much more than they take.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
If your brain wasn’t able to make images out of symbols, learning and reading would be worthless and incredibly boring. Your brain likes pictures and is really good at remembering them. As neuroscientist John Medina said, “Hear a piece of information and three days later you’ll remember 10% of it. Add a picture and you’ll remember 65%.
Kevin Horsley (Unlimited Memory: How to Use Advanced Learning Strategies to Learn Faster, Remember More and be More Productive (Mental Mastery Book 1))
Executive function is a better predictor of academic success than IQ.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The battle of the sexes has existed for a very long time, illustrated by three quotes separated by centuries: “The female is an impotent male, incapable of making semen because of the coldness of her nature. We therefore should look upon the female state as if it were a deformity, though one that occurs in the ordinary course of nature.” Aristotle (384–332 BC) “Girls begin to talk and to stand on their feet sooner than boys because weeds always grow up more quickly than good crops.” Martin Luther (1483–1546) “If they can put a man on the moon … why can’t they put them all there?” Jill (graffiti I saw on a bathroom wall in 1985, in response to Luther’s quote scribbled there)
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
For example, from nouns to verbs to aspects of grammar, we each store language in different areas, recruiting different regions for different components.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The brain can be divided roughly into two hemispheres of unequal function, and patients can get strokes in either. The hemispheres contain separate “spotlights” for visual attention. The left hemisphere’s spotlight is small, capable of paying attention only to items on the right side of the visual field.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Do one thing at a time
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
[Experts’] knowledge is not simply a list of facts and formulas that are relevant to their domain; instead, their knowledge is organized around core concepts or ‘big ideas’ that guide their thinking about their domains,
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Control isn’t the only factor in productivity. Employees on an assembly line, doing the same tired thing day after day, certainly can feel in control of their work processes. But the brain-numbing tedium can become a source of stress.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
There’s no such thing as a firewall between personal issues and work productivity.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
larks report being most alert around noon and feel most productive at work a few hours before they eat lunch. They don’t need an alarm clock, because they invariably get up before the alarm rings—often before 6:00 a.m. Larks cheerfully report their favorite mealtime as breakfast and generally consume much less coffee than non-larks. Getting increasingly drowsy in the early evening, most larks go to bed (or want to go to bed) around 9:00 p.m.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
For example, if healthy 30-year-olds are sleep deprived for six days (averaging, in this study, about four hours of sleep per night), parts of their body chemistry soon revert to that of a 60-year-old. And if they are allowed to recover, it will take them almost a week to get back to their 30-year-old systems. Taken together, these studies show that sleep loss cripples thinking in just about every way you can measure thinking. Sleep loss hurts attention, executive function, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning ability, general math knowledge. Eventually, sleep loss affects manual dexterity, including fine motor control, and even gross motor movements, such as the ability to walk on a treadmill.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Here’s something you can try at home if you are eight months pregnant or if you have a baby younger than 5 months old. If the infant has already arrived, place him on his back. Then gently lift up both of his legs, or both of his arms, and let them drop back to the bed of their own weight. His arms will usually fling out from the sides of his body, thumbs flexed, palms up, with a startled look on his face. This is called the Moro reflex.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Brain Rule #6 We don’t pay attention to boring things. •   The brain’s attentional “spotlight” can focus on only one thing at a time: no multitasking. •   We are better at seeing patterns and abstracting the meaning of an event than we are at recording detail. •   Emotional arousal helps the brain learn. •   Audiences check out after 10 minutes, but you can keep grabbing them back by telling narratives or creating events rich in emotion.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
For example, brain-damaged individuals who lack the ability to sleep in the slow-wave phase nonetheless have normal, even improved, memory.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The typical human brain can hold about seven pieces of new information for less than 30 seconds!
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
System consolidation, the process of transforming a short-term memory into a long-term one, can take years to complete. During that time, the memory is not stable.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
One of the greatest predictors of successful aging, they found, is the presence or absence of a sedentary lifestyle.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Kids praised for effort complete 50 percent more hard math problems than kids praised for intelligence.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
if you get a certain breed of dog or buy a certain model of car, you suddenly start noticing the same dog or car everywhere you go.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Create a Chocolate Factory There may be as many different types of playrooms as there are families, but every one of them should have the following design element: lots of choices. A place for drawing. A place for painting. Musical instruments. A wardrobe hanging with costumes. Blocks. Picture books. Tubes and gears. Anything where a child can be safely let loose, joyously free to explore whatever catches her fancy. Did you see the movie Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory? If so, you may have been filled with wonder at the chocolate plant, complete with trees, lawns, and waterfalls—a totally explorable, nonlinear ecology. That’s what I mean. I am focusing on artistic pursuits because kids who are trained in the arts
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
How do Muslims view Christians and Jews, who the Quran calls “People of the Book”? At first, the early Quaranic verses encouraged Muslims to live peacefully with Christians, though verses about Jews were never favorable. However, after Muhammad moved to Medina, his revelations became very hostile to Christians.
John Price (The End of America: The Role of Islam in the End Times and Biblical Warnings to Flee America)
When the children reached school age, 21 percent scored 130 or more points on a standard IQ test, a level considered gifted. If their mothers had no morning sickness, only 7 percent of kids did that well.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The trick for business professionals, and for educators, is to present bodies of information so compelling that the audience does this (encoding) on their own, spontaneously engaging in deep and elaborate encoding.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
As for employees working at organizations who treat all people the same way, it will be up to you to push for the things you value: the balance of vacation time versus pay, a flexible schedule, the way your role within the company works. If you’re a manager, make a list of the cognitive strengths of your team. Some of your employees may be great at memorizing things. Others may be better at quantitative tasks. Some have good people skills. Some don’t. Assigning work projects based on an employee’s strengths may be critical to your group’s productivity. You may discover you had a Michael Jordan on your team but couldn’t see it because you were only asking him to play baseball.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
attention Brain Rule #6 We don’t pay attention to boring things.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The more attention the brain pays to a given stimulus, the more elaborately the information will be encoded—that is, learned—and retained.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
said, “Making a decision to have a child—it’s momentous. It is to decide forever to have your heart go walking around outside your body.” Veteran
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Making a decision to have a child—it’s momentous. It is to decide forever to have your heart go walking around outside your body.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Twenty percent of the workforce is already at suboptimal productivity in the current nine-to-five model.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Is jumping out of an airplane inherently stressful? The answer is no, and that highlights the subjective nature of stress. The
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Essentially, exercise improves a whole host of abilities prized in the classroom and at work.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The researchers consistently found that all kinds of mental abilities began to come back online—after as little as four months of aerobic exercise. A different study looked at school-age children. Children jogged for 30 minutes two or three times a week. After 12 weeks, their cognitive performance had improved significantly compared with prejogging levels. When the exercise program was withdrawn, the scores plummeted back to their preexperiment levels.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
What does this have to do with exercise? McAdam’s central notion wasn’t to improve goods and services, but to improve access to goods and services. You can do the same for your brain by increasing the roads in your body, namely your blood vessels, through exercise. Exercise does not provide the oxygen and the food. It provides your body greater access to the oxygen and the food.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Yes, your children are constantly observing you. They are profoundly influenced by what they record. And that can quickly turn from funny to serious, especially when mommy and daddy start fighting.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
. . . reading is a friend with Fountain of Youth benefits. A consistent habit of it lengthens life." Medina, John J. (2017) Brain Rules for Aging Well: 10 Principles for Staying Vital, Happy, and Sharp. Seattle, WA. Pear Press. p. 238.
John J. Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
In fact, one of the biggest predictors of marital bliss appears to be the agreement to have kids in the first place.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
he once played 45 games of chess simultaneously. He won 39 of these games, drew four, and lost two. While that is amazing in its own right, the truly phenomenal part is that he played all 45 games in all 11 hours blindfolded. You did not read that wrong. Najdorf never physically saw any of the chessboards or pieces; he played each game in his mind.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
With only a single X chromosome, males need every one of those 1,500 genes. With two X chromosomes, females have double the necessary amount. You can think of it like a cake recipe calling for only one cup of flour. If you decide to put in two, it will change the results in a most unpleasant fashion. The female embryo uses what may be the most time-honored weapon in the battle of the sexes to solve the problem of two Xs: She simply ignores one of them. This chromosomal silent treatment is known as X inactivation. One of the chromosomes is tagged with the molecular equivalent of a “Do Not Disturb” sign. Because males require all 1,500 X genes to survive, and they have only one X chromosome, X inactivation does not occur in guys. And because males must get their X from Mom, all men are literally, with respect to their X chromosome, Momma’s Boys—unisexed
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
I only dimly recalled this behavior as an adult. But six months into my own marriage, my wife and I were late to a grad school meet-and-greet dinner. She was taking an especially long time to get ready, and I grew impatient. I stormed out of the house, got into the car, and put the key into the ignition. All of a sudden it hit me what I was doing. I remember taking a long breath, marveling at how deeply parents can still influence their kids, and then recalling novelist James Baldwin’s quote: “Children have never been good at listening to their parents, but they have never failed to imitate them.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
The messages that do grab your attention are connected to memory, interest, and awareness.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
productive kid and a juvenile delinquent. Parents with the happiest kids started this habit early in their parenting careers and then continued it over the years. They kept track of their children’s emotions the way some people keep track of their stock portfolios or favorite baseball team. They did not pay attention in a controlling, insecure style but in a loving, unobtrusive way, like a caring family physician. They knew when their kids were happy, sad, fearful, or joyful, often without asking. They could read and interpret with astonishing accuracy their child’s verbal and nonverbal cues.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
A lifetime of exercise results in a sometimes astonishing elevation in cognitive performance, compared with those who are sedentary. Exercisers outperform couch potatoes in tests that measure long-term memory, reasoning, attention, and problem-solving skill.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Dr. Mark A. Gabriel, Ph.D., a former professor of Islamic history at Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt has described the contents of the Quran: “In Medina, Muhammad became a military leader and invader, so   the revelations in Medina talk about military power and invasion in the name of Islam (Jihad). Sixty percent of the Quranic verses talk about Jihad, which stands to reason because Muhammad received most of the Quran after he left Mecca. Jihad became the basic power and driving force of Islam”. (Islam and Terrorism, Charisma House, 2002).
John Price (The End of America: The Role of Islam in the End Times and Biblical Warnings to Flee America)
Wahabism is the dominant form of Islam found in Saudi Arabia and Qatar and is also popular in Egypt, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Bahrain. Wahabists control the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina, giving Wahabists great influence in the Muslim world. More important are the extensive oil fields of Saudi Arabia which have been used to fund the promotion of Islam’s most radical sect across the world. Saudi oil funds have built most of the Muslim Mosques in the western world since 1975. More than 1,500 mosques across the globe were built from Saudi petro funds over the last 50 years.
John Price (The End of America: The Role of Islam in the End Times and Biblical Warnings to Flee America)
after Muhammad moved to Medina, his revelations became very hostile to Christians. Dr. Gabriel writes: “The following verse is considered to be the final revelation from Allah regarding Christians and Jews; therefore, it is understood to override all other revelations: It states: “And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and    polytheism, i.e., worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will be for Allah Alone (in the whole of the world)….” (Surah 8:39 This fact is also emphasized in Surah 5:52-57 and Surah 4:89. When fighting Christians, the Quran commands severe punishment, so Christians will leave their homes and be dispersed. (Surah 8:57).
John Price (The End of America: The Role of Islam in the End Times and Biblical Warnings to Flee America)
You want to get your kid into Harvard? You really want to know what the data say? I’ll tell you what the data say! Go home and love your wife!
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Parents face many issues on a daily basis in the raising of kids, but not all of them affect how their children turn out. There is one that does. How you deal with the emotional lives of your children—your ability to detect, react to, promote, and provide instruction about emotional regulation—has the greatest predictive power over your baby’s future happiness.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
Having a first child is like swallowing an intoxicating drink made of equal parts joy and terror, chased with a bucketful of transitions nobody ever tells you about.
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
the laboratory, the gold standard appears to be aerobic exercise, 30 minutes at a clip, two or three times a week. Add a strengthening regimen and you get even more cognitive benefit.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
•   We have a great number of ways of being intelligent, many of which don’t show up on IQ tests.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Maybe you saw this soft-drink commercial. The camera follows a pleasant-looking, college-age young man at a social event in a large house. It’s the holidays, and he is busy introducing you to his various friends and family, singing a song, and passing out soft drinks. There’s his mom, his sis, his brother, his “surprisingly cool stepmother,” and the two kids his stepmom had before meeting his dad, plus aunts, cousins, office mates, his best friend, his judo coach, his allergist, even his Twitter fans. It was the clearest example I have seen that the definition of the American family is changing. Rapidly. It
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)
We were not sitting in a classroom for eight hours at a stretch. We were not sitting in a cubicle for eight hours at a stretch. If we sat around the Serengeti for eight hours—
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
•   Aerobic exercise just twice a week halves your risk of general dementia. It cuts your risk of alzheimer’s by 60 percent.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Without a flexible, immediately available, highly regulated stress response, we would die. Remember, the brain is the world’s most sophisticated survival organ. All
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
People usually forget 90 percent of what they learn in a class within 30 days. And the majority of this forgetting occurs within the first few hours after class.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
John Bransford, a gifted education researcher, has spent many years studying what separates novice teachers from expert teachers. One of many things he noticed is the way the experts organize information. “[Experts’] knowledge is not simply a list of facts and formulas that are relevant to their domain; instead, their knowledge is organized around core concepts or ‘big ideas’ that guide their thinking about their domains,” he cowrote in How People Learn.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Multitasking, when it comes to paying attention, is a myth.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
That’s why a person who is interrupted takes 50 percent longer to accomplish a task and makes up to 50 percent more errors.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
In one of the strangest types of synesthesia—there are at least three dozen—people see a word and immediately experience a taste on their tongue.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
Until researchers started measuring the effects of cell-phone distractions under controlled conditions, nobody had any idea how profoundly they can impair a driver. It’s like driving drunk. Recall that large fractions of a second are consumed every time the brain switches tasks. Cell-phone talkers are more wild in their “following distance” behind the vehicle in front of them, a half second slower to hit the brakes in emergencies, and slower to return to normal speed after an emergency. In a half second, a driver going 70 mph travels 51 feet. Given that 80 percent of crashes happen within three seconds of some kind of driver distraction, increasing your amount of task switching increases your risk of an accident. More than 50 percent of the visual cues spotted by attentive drivers are missed by cell-phone talkers. Not surprisingly, they get in more wrecks than anyone except very drunk drivers. Putting on makeup, eating, and rubbernecking at an accident aren’t much better. One study showed that simply reaching for an object while driving a car multiplies the risk of a crash or near-crash by nine times.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
For example, if healthy 30-year-olds are sleep deprived for six days (averaging, in this study, about four hours of sleep per night), parts of their body chemistry soon revert to that of a 60-year-old.
John Medina (Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School)
The four biggest reasons you’ll fight Why will you fight? I mentioned four consistent sources of marital conflict in the transition to parenthood. Left to their own devices, all can profoundly influence the course of your marriage, and that makes them capable of affecting your child’s developing brain. I’ll call them the Four Grapes of Wrath. They are:        •    sleep loss        •    social isolation        •    unequal workload        •    depression
John Medina (Brain Rules for Baby: How to Raise a Smart and Happy Child from Zero to Five)